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Carl Jung

Carl Gustav Jung On Dreams


Dreams are specific expressions of the unconscous which have a definite, purposeful structure indicating an underlying idea or intention. The general function of dreams is to restore one's total psychic equlilibrium. They tend to play a complementary or compensatory role in our psychic makeup.

The page references in our text are to the book Dreams by C. G. Jung. It was translated by R. F. C. Hull. Also www.dreamloverinc.com/anatomy.htm.

From Dreams to Self Understanding
By Silvana Ivin-Amar

As I get deeper into the study of dreams, into C. Jung and into my own thoughts, I am beginning to develop a better understanding of who I am as a total human being. The point of it all is really self identity and self understanding. For a long time now, people have been talking and writing about the ego, the conscious and the unconscious. The spirit and the soul. In order for any of this to make sense, all of these concepts must somehow fit together. It is like having pieces of a puzzle in both hands and now needing to put it together. If the "putting together" is successful you can see the beautiful picture that is created from all the smaller parts.

The soul is the big picture. We are soul. The soul has the ability to travel in the realm of the collective unconscious and it does so in our dreams. However, not in all dreams. The soul it is also accessible through other means -- such as prayer, meditation and contemplation. Thus, we are soul and we come from the realm of the collective unconscious, we return to it when we can and we ultimately return to it at the end (our own physical end).

We also have the ego. The ego is our personality and some manifestations of the soul in this life time and in this body. The ego is responsible for our daily functioning; it is our psychology and rationality. The ego has its own unconscious component. We call this our private unconscious. These are things outside of our conscious awareness but from the realm of this physical reality and of this life.

The ego rules the day and this conscious life. But our lives are directed or effected by unseen forces within ourselves. In order for a person to be very well developed, integrated and in balance -- there needs to be an understanding of the various elements that create the total person. We need to acknowledge and recognize the ego -- its conscious and unconscious components. We also need to give, at the minimum, equal time and respect to our soul. First to recognize the fact that we are more than a body and more than our egos. Then, try to develop our understanding of soul -- or try to become intimate with it.

So many of us are completely out of balance. The world is a mess and individually we are a mess too. We attempt to address our problems by taking care of the ego. We go to therapy and we analyze and attempt to heal only the ego. This is helpful for only a short period of time and many of the symptoms and problems return to us full force. In order to achieve any permanent, or long lasting contentment and peacefulness we need to look at ourselves in our beautiful and very complex totality.

We need to heal not only our egos, which take care of our concrete problems, but also our souls, which are the source of any permanent feelings of love and health.

In our dreams we have the wonderful ability to transcend the physical world and to function as soul. We have the opportunity to tap into the collective unconscious and to have experiences which are enlightening. At times we remember these experiences and we attempt to understand them through dream analysis. When dreams are from the collective unconscious we say that they are archetypal in nature and decoding them may not be all that difficult. This is time consuming but not impossible to do.

Unfortunately, those of us that are firmly stuck in the ego during the day remember dreams that are from the ego during the night. The personal unconscious materials are remembered and analyzed and the individual may be satisfied by a simplistic dream interpretation. To develop a model of the human psyche in its totality is very, very difficult. To somehow diagram the four unequal components is something that I am thinking about and may have some insight about it in the future. It may be spherical in design and hopefully the diagram would be able to show interrelationship between all the parts.

It is possible to come to a greater level of understanding without dreams. However, it is not wise. Dreams are an irreplaceable source of information, inspiration and enlightenment. It is each persons responsibility to become familiar with their dreams. To think about them, to write them down, and to regularly attempt to understand the messages from their dreams. As you do this, your lives will become fuller and you will gain insight, not only into your daily life, but also into your soul!

"The collective unconscious is common to all; it is the foundation of
what the ancients called the "sympathy of all things." -- CG Jung

Carl Gustav Jung lived from 1875 to 1961 and was a Swiss psychiatrist. In the early years, he worked in an asylum and was motivated by a desire to understand the human psyche. Freud and Jung were contemporaries. Jung was fascinated by Freud's ideas about the unconscious and by his theories on dreams. Jung did not agree with Freud on many accounts and he independently research and developed an extensive theoretical framework regarding the structure of the human psyche and the nature of dreams. The foundation of Analytical psychology is the life's work of Carl Jung. He was a prolific writer and was tenacious in his pursuit to understand the human condition. Jung's work includes conventional and unconventional areas of study such as religion, alchemy and astrology.

In order to appreciate the theories and thoughts of C. G. Jung an individual must first have a general understanding, appreciation, and belief in the unconscious. It is difficult to explain the unconscious because it is not a concrete object. One can not hold it, look at it or examine it directly. It is something like wind. We can see its effects and can feel it, but we can not grab it in our hands and examine it. Science can not study the unconscious directly. The only proof of its existence can be found in the complex workings of the human mind and spirit.

To give the unconscious validity and power is a leap of faith. To believe in its existence is something like believing in a Higher Power. I don't mean to suggest that the unconscious is like God. In my understanding, it is not. The unconscious is a very private and individual thing. Our dream material may come from this wonderful place that we have no access to during the day. The unconscious mind may have the power to connect us to other levels, or dimensions, of ourselves and eventually to everyone and everything else, including Divinity. C. G. Jung said that the unconscious is not necessarily smarter, but that it holds different information than our conscious mind. It enables us to see things that are at times difficult to understand and admit. The unconscious experiences that are revealed to us in dreams also allow freedom and mobility that would be impossible to obtain through the conscious mind. In a dream we can fly and there are virtually no limits to the possibilities in our dream experiences!
In the dream state we have an opportunity to access the PRIVATE and the COLLECTIVE unconscious. According to Carl Jung, the primary functions of dreams are:
  1. Dreams are a compensation for what is going on in daily life. They can serve as a positive or negative compensation. In this way, they attempt to balance the psyche. For example: If you experience unhappiness in daily life, you may have a blissful dream. If you are very successful in a specific area of life, you may have a dream about failure or disaster.
  2. Dreams provide a reaction to a traumatic experience. For example: If you were in a car accident, you may dream of it and the dream may be a repeat of this negative experience. People who suffered great trauma, such as rape victims or war veterans, may have nightmares that are exactly like or very similar to actual life events. As the individual assimilates these traumatic experiences, such dreams should become less and less frequent and may take another form.
  3. Dreams may be prophetic. Some dreams may provide the dreamer with glimpses into the future about small matters, while other dreams may reveal important events. However, keep in mind that most dreams are symbolic and not literal. Prophetic dreams may have an emotional or psychic charge that is different from other types of dreams.
  4. Dreams may be telepathic. In the American Heritage Dictionary, telepathy is defined as "communication through means other than the senses." Telepathic dreams may be a means of communicating with others, as well as a path for one part of the dreamer's psyche to communicate with another.
  5. Dreams may be mimetic of events occurring in the physical system or body. Thus, dreams may attempt to bring to consciousness an unknown illness or be a reflection of a current physical challenge.
Interpreting dreams can and should be practiced without much dogmatic certainty - Disturbances are due to lack of harmony between conscious and unconscious [74].

As regards the maturation of personality, therefore, the analytical approach is of a higher order than suggestion, which is a species of magic that works in the dark and makes no ethical demands upon the personality. Methods of treatment based on suggestion are deceptive makeshifts; they are incompatible with the principles of analytical therapy and should be avoided if at all possible [95].

The dream begins with a STATEMENT OF PLACE . . . [80].
Next comes a statement about the PROTAGONISTS . . . Statements of time are rarer. I call this phase of the dream the EXPOSITION. It indicates the scene of action, the people involved, and often the initial situation of the dreamer. . . . [80].
In the second phase comes the DEVELOPMENT of the plot . . . The situation is somehow becoming complicated and a definite tension develops because one does not know what will happen [80-81].
The third phase brings the CULMINATION or peripeteia. Here something decisive happens or something changes completely [81].
The fourth and last phase is the lysis, the SOLUTION or RESULT produced by the dream-work. (There are certain dreams in which the fourth phase is lacking, and this can present a special problem, not to be discussed here) [81].

For dream contents to be assimilated, it is of overriding importance that no real values of the conscious personality should be damaged, much less destroyed, otherwise there is no one left to do the assimilating [103-4].

Here we come upon something of the utmost importance for the applicability of dream-analysis: the dream describes the inner situation of the dreamer, but the conscious mind denies its truth and reality, or admits it only grudgingly [90].

Every dream is an organ of information and control, and . . . dreams are our most effective aid in building up the personality [101].

Nobody doubts the importance of conscious experience; why then should we doubt the significance of unconscious happenings? [99].

If the practitioner operates too much with fixed symbols, there is a danger of his falling into mere routine and pernicious dogmatism, and thus failing his patient [105].

The charge has recently been laid at my door that my teaching about the assimilation of the unconscious would undermine civilization and deliver up our highest values to sheer primitivity. Such an opinion can only be based on the totally erroneous supposition that the unconscious is a monster . . . The unconscious is not a demoniacal monster, but a natural entity . . . It only becomes dangerous when our conscious attitude to it is hopelessly wrong. To the degree that we repress it, its danger increases [100].

It is imperative that we should not pare down the meaning of the dream to fit some narrow doctrine [96].

Initial dreams are often amazingly lucid and clear-cut. But as the work of analysis progresses, the dreams tend to lose their clarity . . . As a rule, dreams get more and more opaque and blurred soon after the beginning of the treatment, and this makes the interpretation increasingly difficult. A further difficulty is that a point may soon be reached where . . . the doctor no longer understands the situation as a whole [93].

We are dealing with something like a text that is unintelligible not because it has a facade-a text has no facade-but simply because we cannot read it. We do not have to get behind such a text, but must first learn to read it.] The best way to do this . . . is to establish the context [97-98].

[Sound dream interpretation] requires the patient to face his problems and that taxes his powers of conscious judgment and decision. It is nothing less than a direct challenge to his ethical sense, a call to arms that must be answered by the whole personality [94-95].

These symbols are relatively fixed, but in no single case can we have the a priori certainty that in practice the symbol must be interpreted in that way [105].

I make it an heuristic rule, in interpreting a dream, to ask myself: What conscious attitude does it compensate? By so doing, I relate the dream as closely as possible to the conscious situation; indeed, I would even assert that without knowledge of the conscious situation the dream can never be interpreted with any degree of certainty [102].

The manifestations of the subjective psyche, or consciousness, can be predicted to only the smallest degree [117].

With "unconscious" manifestations there is . . . only the loosest connections with conscious contents [117].

"Recently I dreamt I was coming home at night. Everything is as quiet as death. The door into the living-room is half open, and I see my mother hanging from the chandelier, swinging to and fro in the cold wind that blows in through the open windows. Another time I dreamt that a terrible noise broke out in the house at night. I get up and discover that a frightened horse is tearing through the rooms. At last it finds the door into the hall, and jumps through the hall window from the fourth floor into the street below. I was terrified when I saw it lying there, all mangled."]
The gruesome character of the dreams is alone sufficient to make one pause . . . the two main symbols, "mother" and "horse" . . . both do the same thing - they commit suicide. . . . The underlying, primary psychic reality is so inconceivably complex that it can be grasped only at the farthest reach of intuition.
"Horse" is an equivalent of "mother" with a slight shift of meaning. . . . the horse [stands] for the merely animal life of the body. . . . , its interpretation will be: The animal life is destroying itself. . . . Both dreams point to a grave organic disease with a fatal outcome. This prognosis was soon confirmed [107-9].

[Many] begin by associating in accordance with a theory, that is, they try to understand and interpret, and they nearly always get stuck. . . . they want to get behind the dream at once in the false belief that the dream is a mere facade concealing the true meaning. But the so-called facade of most houses is by no means a fake or a deceptive distortion; on the contrary, it follows the plan of the building . . . The "manifest" dream-picture is the dream itself and contains the whole meaning of the dream [97].

The "big" or "meaningful" dreams come from this deeper level. They reveal their significance-quite apart from the subjective impression they make-by their plastic form, which often has a poetic force and beauty. Such dreams occur mostly during the critical phases of life, in early youth, puberty, at the onset of middle age (thirty-six to forty), and within sight of death . . [77].

Archetypal products are no longer concerned with personal experiences [77].

"I am a celibate like the Pope, but I would like to have many wives like the Moslem." I kept silent about these conjectures [10].

Persecution mania comes from a relationship poisoned by mistrust [123].

One should realize that dreams often have many meanings and can contain significant hints.

[Certain] reflections are unavoidable if one wants to understand the meaning of "big" dreams. They employ numerous mythological motifs that characterize the life of the hero, of that greater man who is semi-divine by nature. Here we find the dangerous adventures and ordeals such as occur in initiations. We meet dragons, helpful animals, and demons; also the Wise old Man, the animal-man, the wishing tree, the hidden treasure, the well, the cave, the walled garden, the transformative processes and substances of alchemy, and so forth-all things which in no way touch the banalities of everyday. . . . they have to do with the realization of a part of the personality which . . . is still in the process of becoming [79]. It frequently happens at the very beginning of the treatment that a dream will reveal to the doctor, in broad perspective, the whole program of the unconscious. But for practical reasons it may be quite impossible to make clear to the patient the deeper meaning of the dream. In this respect, too, we are limited by practical considerations [106].

Understanding is clearly a very subjective process. It can be extremely one-sided, in that the doctor understands but not the patient. In such a case the doctor conceives it to be his duty to convince the patient, and if the latter will not allow himself to be convinced, the doctor accuses him of resistance. . . . it makes very little difference whether the doctor understands or not, but it makes all the difference whether the patient understands. Understanding should therefore be understanding in the sense of an agreement which is the fruit of joint reflection [94].

All other hypotheses, however, about the function and the structure of dreams are merely rules of thumb and must be subjected to constant modification. In dream-analysis we must never forget, even for a moment, that we move on treacherous ground where nothing is certain but uncertainty [96].

Horses in folklore sometimes see visions, hear voices, and speak . . [107].

Among the many puzzles of medical psychology there is one problem-child, the dream. It would be an interesting, as well as difficult, task to examine the dream exclusively in its medical aspects, that is, with regard to the diagnosis and prognosis of pathological conditions. The dream does in fact concern itself with both health and sickness, and since, by virtue of its source in the unconscious, it draws upon a wealth of subliminal perceptions, it can sometimes produce things that are very well worth knowing. This has often proved helpful to me [67-68].

Dream-interpretation requires, among other things, specialized knowledge. . . . I am quite ready to believe that an intelligent layman with some psychological knowledge and experience of life could, with practice, diagnose dream-compensation correctly [76].

By the sea shore. . . . The sea is the symbol of the collective unconscious [too] [122].

Even if we know the conscious situation we know nothing of the attitude of the unconscious [74].

I . . . urge my patients to keep a careful record of their dreams and of the interpretations given. I also show them how to work out their dreams . . . they can bring the dream and its context with them in writing to the consultation. At a later stage I get them to work out the interpretation as well. In this way the patient learns how to deal correctly with his unconscious [98].

[Carl Gustav] Carus [1789-1869] formulated the concept of the unconscious [in the 1800s] [87].

If . . . someone dreams of a table, we are still far from knowing what the "table" of the dreamer signifies, although the word "table" sounds unambiguous enough. For the thing we do not know is that this "table" is the very one at which his father sat when he refused the dreamer all further financial help and threw him out of the house as a good-for-nothing. The polished surface of this table stares at him as a symbol of his lamentable worthlessness in his daytime consciousness as well as in his dreams at night. This is what our dreamer understands by "table." Therefore we need the dreamer's help in order to limit the multiple meanings of words to those that are essential and convincing. That the "table" stands as a mortifying landmark in the dreamer's life may be doubted by anyone who was not present. But the dreamer does not doubt it, nor do I. . . . If, therefore, we establish that the "table" in the dream means just that fatal table, with all that this implies, then, although we have not explained the dream, we have at least interpreted one important motif of it; that is, we have recognized the subjective context in which the word "table" is embedded. We arrived at this conclusion by a methodical questioning of the dreamer's own associations. The further procedures to which Freud subjects the dream-contents I have had to reject, for they are too much influenced by the preconceived opinion that dreams are the fulfillment of "repressed wishes." [70-71].

There are three possibilities. If the conscious attitude to the life situation is in large degree one-sided, then the dream takes the opposite side. If the conscious has a position fairly near the "middle," the dream is satisfied with variations. If the conscious attitude is "correct" (adequate), then the dream coincides with and emphasizes this tendency, though without forfeiting its peculiar autonomy [74].

The prospective function [of the dream], on the other hand, is an anticipation in the unconscious of future conscious achievements, some thing like a preliminary exercise or sketch, or a plan roughed out in advance. Its symbolic content sometimes outlines the solution of a conflict [41].

If dreams produce . . . essential compensations, why are they not understandable? [80].

In the particular psychological situation of the dreamer the allusion to the raising up of the dead man acquires a pretty significance as the curing of her husband's impotence [20].

I therefore proceed in the same way as I would in deciphering a difficult text. This method does not always produce an immediately understandable result; often the only thing that emerges, at first, is a hint that looks significant [72].

It is Freud's great achievement to have put dream-interpretation on the right track. Above all, he recognized that no interpretation can be undertaken without the dreamer. The words composing a dream-narrative have not just one meaning, but many meanings [70].

It is not for psychology, as a science, to demand a hypostatization of the God-image. But, the facts being what they are, it does have to reckon with the existence of a God-image. In the same way it reckons with instinct but does not deem itself competent to say what "instinct" really is [64].

It may seem strange that I should attribute an as it were indefinite content to these relatively fixed symbols. Yet if their content were not indefinite, they would not be symbols at all, but signs or symptoms. We all know how the Freudian school operates with hard-and-fast sexual "symbols"-which in this case I would call "signs"-and endows them with an apparently definitive content, namely sexuality. Unfortunately Freud's idea of sexuality is incredibly elastic and so vague that it can be made to include almost anything [104].

Later in the analysis he had the following dream: He received a bill from the analyst charging him interest of 1 franc on a sum of 325 francs for delay in payment from the 3rd to the 28th September. This reproach of meanness and avariciousness leveled at the analyst covered, as analysis proved, a strong unconscious envy [15].

The "tail-eater" (Uroboros) as the prima materia of the alchemical process, with the red-and-white rose, the flos sapientum [127].

It seldom happens that anyone who has taken the trouble to work over his dreams with qualified assistance for a longer period of time remains without enrichment and a broadening of his mental horizon [75].

The doctor should not be too ready to accuse the dreams of confusion or the patient of deliberate resistance, he would do better to take these findings as a sign of his own growing inability to understand [93].

The dream is a natural occurrence, and . . . nature shows no inclination to offer her fruits gratis or according to human expectations [80].

The purposive nature of the dream-content is not immediately discernible from outside without further investigation [39].

We manage to establish almost the whole context of the dream-image. When we have done this for all the images in the dream we are ready for the venture of interpretation. Every interpretation is a hypothesis, an attempt to read an unknown text [98].

The avowed aim of dream-analysis is not only to exercise our wits, but to uncover and realize those hitherto unconscious contents which are considered to be of importance in the elucidation or treatment of a neurosis [87-88].

We say that the dream has a false front only because we fail to see into it [97].

With the ordinary projection of traits of character or momentary attitudes . . . it frequently happens that the object offers a hook to the projection [59].

In Jungian mind analysis, some dreams are studied. The ritualistic and odd therapy - shun it! Dreams contain something more than practical helps for the doctor, dream-analysis deserves very special attention. Sometimes, indeed, it is a matter of life and death [98]. Through the assimilation of unconscious contents, the momentary life of consciousness can once more be brought into harmony with the law of nature from which it all too easily departs, and the patient can be led back to the natural law of his own being [109].

The correct dream interpretation can strike home [cf. 103].

As is the way of all dreams, my little dream example gives us rather more than we expected [91].

The patient has falsified the situation. It suits his fancy to come to me in the guise of a philosopher and psychologist . . . But the dream reminds him of it . . . and forces him to tell the truth. . . . His recollection of the fortune-teller shows us very clearly just how he had imagined my activities . . . The dream rectifies the situation. It contributes the material that was lacking and thereby improves the patient's attitude. That is [a] reason we need dream-analysis in our therapy [36].

Every process that goes too far immediately and inevitably calls forth compensations, and without these there would be neither a normal metabolism nor a normal psyche [101].

I leave theory aside as much as possible when analyzing dreams-not entirely, of course, for we always need some theory to make things intelligible. It is on the basis of theory, for instance, that I expect dreams to have a meaning. I cannot prove in every case that this is so, for there are dreams which the doctor and the patient simply do not understand [96].

The patient, that is to say, does not need to have a truth inculcated into him-if we do that, we only reach his head; he needs far more to grow up to this truth, and in that way we reach his heart, and the appeal goes deeper and works more powerfully [94].

Why must the dream manufacture such an improbable story [103].

Very much more could be said about the aims of dream-analysis, but since dream-analysis is instrumental to analytical treatment in general, this could only be done if I were to embark on the whole question of therapy [65].

We all know how the Freudian school operates with hard-and-fast sexual "symbols" . . . Primitive people, who, like the ancients, make the freest use of phallic symbols, would never dream of confusing the phallus, as a ritualistic symbol, with the penis [104, 105].

The ouroboros snake could need to be mastered too, and some dreams are essentially visions The Ouroboros is an ancient symbol - that is understood as "snake" or "serpent" - that is an ancient Near Eastern and Aegean and Greek emblem of wisdom, a symbol of unity of things. The symbolic snake of wisdom which circularly eats its own tail, is traced back to Egyptian mythology. (C.W. Vol. 14 para.483). "The symbol of the uroboros, the snake that eats its own tail'. In the age-old image of the uroboros lies the thought of devouring oneself and turning oneself into . . . the One, who proceeds from the [outré] joining opposites, (from C.W. Vol. 14 para.513) ]. "What nature leaves imperfect is perfected by the art," says an alchemical dictum [80].

In the case of a neurosis . . . the unconscious is quite capable of bringing about all kinds of unwelcome disturbances "by mistake," often with serious consequences, or of provoking neurotic symptoms [74].

In spite of his sincere efforts to remember, it was at first impossible for him to recall what this was. Here we have a very common instance of forgetfulness caused by inhibition [10].

As far back as 1907 I pointed out the compensatory relation between consciousness and the split-off complexes and also emphasized their purposive character [38].

Many . . . resemble the doctor in their insuperable desire to understand and interpret . . . especially when they have been primed by ill-digested reading . . [96-97].

The doctor should regard every such dream as something new, as a source of information about conditions whose nature is unknown to him, concerning which he has as much to learn as the patient. It goes without saying that he should give up all his theoretical assumptions and should in every single case be ready to construct a totally new theory of dreams. There are still boundless opportunities [95].

There are, it is true, dreams which manifestly represent wishes or fears, but what about all the other things? Dreams may contain ineluctable truths, philosophical pronouncements, illusions, wild fantasies, memories, plans, anticipations, irrational experiences, even telepathic visions, and heaven knows what besides. One thing we ought never to forget: almost half our life is passed in a more or less unconscious state. The dream is specifically the utterance of the unconscious [95].

The combination of ideas in dreams is essentially fantastic; they are linked together in a sequence which is as a rule quite foreign to our "reality thinking," and in striking contrast to the logical sequence of ideas which we consider to be a special characteristic of conscious mental processes . . . the dream and its context is something that we do not understand. . . . But that would not prevent dreams from having an inherent meaning of their own [24].

The dream uses collective figures because it has to express an eternal human problem that repeats itself [78].

Since the meaning of most dreams is not in accord with the tendencies of the conscious mind but shows peculiar deviations, we must assume that the unconscious, the matrix of dreams, has an independent function. This is what I call the autonomy of the unconscious. The dream not only fails to obey our will but very often stands in flagrant opposition to our conscious intentions [73]. the Freudian school presents the unconscious in a thoroughly negative light, much as it regards primitive man as little better than a monster. Its nursery-tales about the terrible old man of the tribe and its teachings about the "infantile-perverse-criminal" unconscious have led people to make a dangerous ogre out of something perfectly natural. As if all that is good, reasonable, worth while, and beautiful had taken up its abode in the conscious mind! [100].

This division into four [dream] phases can be applied without much difficulty to the majority of dreams met with in practice-an indication that dreams generally have a "dramatic" structure [81].

Dreams are the very fabric of the analytical process, whether it is called psychoanalysis in Freud's system or analytical psychology in Jung's, and the writings of both of the great pioneers are thronged with accounts and analyses of dreams and expositions of dream theory [v].

We should have a less confused idea of the processes mediated to the conscious mind by dreams and a clearer recognition of what the symbols point to [109].

In a changing world, the unconscious too stands in need of sound educative measures. Free association will bring out all my complexes, but hardly ever the meaning of a dream [98]. In the treatment of neurosis, the task before us is to reestablish an approximate harmony between conscious and unconscious [75].

Our mentality is distinguished by the shameless naiveté with which we judge our enemy, and in the judgment we pronounce upon him we unwittingly reveal our own defects: we simply accuse our enemy of our own unadmitted faults. We see everything in the other, we criticize and condemn the other, we even want to improve and educate the other [56].

For prognosis, . . . certain dreams are important [68]

A slight knowledge is a beginning, moderation in life comes in handy; dreams seem to suggest that frequently. If one believes that the unconscious always knows best, one can easily be betrayed into leaving the dreams to take the necessary decisions, and is then disappointed when the dreams be come more and more trivial and meaningless. Experience has shown me that a slight knowledge of dream psychology is apt to lead to an overrating of the unconscious which impairs the power of conscious decision. The unconscious functions satisfactorily only when the conscious mind fulfils its tasks to the very limit [82].

Summary

1. Significant dream themes develop and culminate, and in some cases solutions are strongly suggested in them. Interpreting dreams can and should be practiced with scrutiny and candour, without much dogmatic certainty. And we should realize that dreams often have many meanings and can contain significant hints.

2. Good interpretations seem to be more readily accepted. In Jungian mind analysis, some dreams are studied. As for the ritualistic, odd therapy - shun it! The ouroboros snake could need to be mastered too, and some dreams are essentially visions.

3. One task before us is harmony and another is self-help through dreams. Strife is a part of life too, and dreams tend to offer suggestions on solving that sort of stuff - maybe not full well. In a changing world, the unconscious too stands in need of sound educative measures. Slight knowledge marks the beginning of any study - there is no need to play down a fair beginner, therefore, as moderation is a cue.

Dream themes tend to require tactful interpretations, or dreams may become elusive to understand. Self-help dream interpretations can work well. A little study to go along with it is called for. Many dreams strive for organismic balancing, and thereby hint at moderation ways or countermeasures.

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Carl Gustav Jung Biography

Carl Gustav Jung was born July 26, 1875, in the small Swiss village of Kessewil. His father was Paul Jung, a country parson, and his mother was Emilie Preiswerk Jung. He was surrounded by a fairly well educated extended family, including quite a few clergymen and some eccentrics as well.

The elder Jung started Carl on Latin when he was six years old, beginning a long interest in language and literature -- especially ancient literature. Besides most modern western European languages, Jung could read several ancient ones, including Sanskrit, the language of the original Hindu holy books.

Carl was a rather solitary adolescent, who didn't care much for school, and especially couldn't take competition. He went to boarding school in Basel, Switzerland, where he found himself the object of a lot of jealous harassment. He began to use sickness as an excuse, developing an embarrassing tendency to faint under pressure.

Although his first career choice was archeology, he went on to study medicine at the University of Basel. While working under the famous neurologist Krafft-Ebing, he settled on psychiatry as his career.

After graduating, he took a position at the Burghoeltzli Mental Hospital in Zurich under Eugene Bleuler, an expert on (and the namer of) schizophrenia. In 1903, he married Emma Rauschenbach. He also taught classes at the University of Zurich, had a private practice, and invented word association at this time!

Long an admirer of Freud, he met him in Vienna in 1907. The story goes that after they met, Freud canceled all his appointments for the day, and they talked for 13 hours straight, such was the impact of the meeting of these two great minds! Freud eventually came to see Jung as the crown prince of psychoanalysis and his heir apparent.

But Jung had never been entirely sold on Freud's theory. Their relationship began to cool in 1909, during a trip to America. They were entertaining themselves by analyzing each others' dreams (more fun, apparently, than shuffleboard), when Freud seemed to show an excess of resistance to Jung's efforts at analysis. Freud finally said that they'd have to stop because he was afraid he would lose his authority! Jung felt rather insulted.

World War I was a painful period of self-examination for Jung. It was, however, also the beginning of one of the most interesting theories of personality the world has ever seen. After the war, Jung traveled widely, visiting, for example, tribal people in Africa, America, and India. He retired in 1946, and began to retreat from public attention after his wife died in 1955. He died on June 6, 1961, in Zurich.

Carl Jung's Theories

Carl Jung believed a dreams content uses symbolic language. He proposed that a dream expresses collective racial unconscious memories and instincts shared by all people.

These are basic ideas that are themselves symbols. These include the hero, monster, mother, father, mandala, sacrifice and the mask.

Dreams also indicate the way to self actualization. Jungian therapy in fact deals extensively with dreams and fantasies.

INDIVIDUATION. Jung believed that a human being is inwardly whole, but that most of us have lost touch with important parts of our selves. Through listening to the messages of our dreams and waking imagination, we can contact and reintegrate our different parts. The goal of life is individuation, the process of coming to know, giving expression to, and harmonizing the various components of the psyche. If we realize our uniqueness, we can undertake a process of individuation and tap into our true self. Each human being has a specific nature and calling which is uniquely his or her own, and unless these are fulfilled through a union of conscious and unconscious, the person can become sick.

STORY. Jung concluded that every person has a story, and when derangement occurs, it is because the personal story has been denied or rejected. Healing and integration comes when the person discovers or rediscovers his or her own personal story.

NEUROSIS. Jung had a hunch that what passed for normality often was the very force which shattered the personality of the patient. That trying to be "normal", when this violates our inner nature, is itself a form of pathology. In the psychiatric hospital, he wondered why psychiatrists were not interested in what their patients had to say.

MYSTERY. For Jung life was a great mystery. We know and understand very little of it. He never hesitated to say, "I don't know." Always admitted when he came to the end of his understanding.

THE UNCONSCIOUS. A basic tenet: All products of the unconscious are symbolic and can be taken as guiding messages. What is the dream or fantasy leading the person toward? The unconscious will live, and will move us, whether we like it or not.

Personal unconscious. That aspect of the psyche which does not usually inter the individual's awareness and which appears in overt behavior or in dreams. It is the source of new thoughts and creative ideals, and produces meaningful symbols.

Collective unconscious: That aspect of the unconscious which manifests inherited, universal themes which run through all human life. Inwardly, the whole history of the human race, back to the most primitive times, lives on in us.

SYMBOL. A name, term, picture which is familiar in daily life, yet has other connotations besides its conventional and obvious meaning. Implies something vague and partially unknown or hidden, and is never precisely defined. Dream symbols carry messages from the unconscious to the rational mind.

ARCHETYPES. These primordial images reflect basic patterns or universal themes common to us all which are present in the unconscious. These symbolic images exist outside space and time. Examples: Shadow, animus, anima, the old wise person, the innocent child. There also seem to be nature archetypes, like fire, ocean, river, mountain.

PERSONA. The "mask" or image we present to the world. Designed to make a particular impression on others, while concealing our true nature.

SHADOW. The side of our personality which we do not conscousnly display in public. May have positive or negative qualities. If it remains unconscious, the shadow is often projected onto other individuals or groups.

ANIMA. Archetype symbolizing the unconscious female component of the male psyche. Tendencies or qualities often thought of as "feminine."

ANIMUS. Archetype symbolizing the unconscious male component of the female psyche. Tendencies or qualities often thought of as "masculine."

DREAMS. Specific expressions of the unconscous which have a definite, purposeful structure indicating an underlying idea or intention. The general function of dreams is to restore one's total psychic equlilibrium. They tend to play a complementary or compensatory role in our psychic makeup.

COMPLEXES: Usually unconscious and repressed emotionally-toned symbolic material that is incompatible with consciousness. "Stuck-together" agglomerations of thoughts, feelings, behavior patterns, and somatic forms of expression. Can cause constant psychological disturbances and symptoms of neurosis. With intervention, can become conscious and greatly reduced in their impact.

WORD ASSOCIATION TEST. A research technique Jung used to explore the complexes in the personal unconscious. Consisted of reading 100 words one at a time and having the person respond quickly with a word of his or her own. Delays in responding can indicate a complex.

SYNCHRONICITY. The meaningful coincidence of a psychic and a physical state or event which have no causal relationship to each other.

SELF. Archetype symbolizing the totality of the personality. It represents the striving for unity, wholeness, and integration.

MANDALA. The Sanskrit word for circle. For Jung, the mandala was a symbol of wholeness, completness, and perfection. Symbolized the self.

AMPLIFICATION. To get a larger sense of a dream, a kind of spreading-out of associations by referring to mythology, art, literature, music. ("Where have we heard this before."

ACTIVE IMAGINATION. A concept embracing a variety of techniques for activating our imaginal processes in waking life in order to tap into the unconscious meanings of our symbols.

PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPES. People differ in certain basic ways, even though the instincts which drive us are the same. He distinguished two general attitudes--introversion and extraversion; and four functions--thinking, feeling, sensing, and intuiting.

    Extravert: Outer-directed, need for sociability, chooses people as a source of energy, often action-oriented.

    Introvert: Inner-directed, need for privacy and space; chooses solitude to recover energy, often reflective.

    Thinking function: Logical, sees cause & effect relations, cool, distant, frank, questioning.

    Feeling function: Creative, warm, intimate, a sense of valuing positively or negatively. (Note that this is not the same as emotion)

    Sensing function: Sensory, oriented toward the body and senses, detailed, concrete, present.

    Intuitive. Sees many possibilities in situations, goes with hunches, impatient with earthy details, impractical, sometimes not present.

    Also See Introduction to Dream Interpretation by Robert Winer, M.D.


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